Specific Learning Disorder (LD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a child's ability to learn or use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or math. The term "specific" refers to the fact that the child's difficulty is specific to one or more academic areas, rather than being a general intellectual or developmental delay.
There are three main types of Specific Learning Disorder:
Dyslexia: Difficulty with reading, including difficulty recognizing words, decoding, and comprehending written language.
Dysgraphia: Difficulty with writing, including difficulty with spelling, grammar, and punctuation, as well as difficulty with the physical act of writing.
Dyscalculia: Difficulty with math, including difficulty with understanding numerical concepts, basic math facts, and math operations.
Children with Specific Learning Disorder may have normal intelligence and may excel in other areas, such as creativity or problem-solving. However, they may struggle with academic tasks despite adequate instruction, practice, and effort.
Specific Learning Disorder is typically diagnosed in childhood or early adolescence, and early intervention is important for improving outcomes. Treatment may involve educational interventions, such as specialized instruction, accommodations, or modifications, as well as therapy to address any emotional or social difficulties related to the disorder.